Shouldn’t Darwin Day be named Darwin-Wallace Day? After all, Alfred Russell Wallace is by most accounts the co-discoverer of natural selection. Papers by Wallace and Darwin were read together at the Linnean Society meeting of 1858, over a year before Origin of Species was published. Some groups are seeking to give Wallace his due in the limelight – or, in the language of presidential politics, at least let him be Darwin’s running mate. In a letter to Nature,1 George W. Beccaloni and Vincent S. Smith complained that celebrations for Darwin Day are downplaying Wallace’s role. This was not to disparage the great Darwin, for they agreed with Kevin Padian (02/11/2008) that next year’s 200th birthday should be “celebrated enthusiastically.” But 2009 is also the 150th anniversary of the discovery of natural selection. There has been a long-standing attempt to marginalize the great Wallace, they argued. It almost seems intentional:This lack of interest in the 2008 anniversary is indicative of how Wallace’s achievements have been overshadowed by Darwin’s since Wallace’s death in 1913, a process certainly not helped by the Darwin ‘industry’ of recent decades. During his lifetime, Wallace received plenty of recognition from his contemporaries for his part in the discovery, as indicated by the many honours bestowed on him. These include the Darwin-Wallace and Linnean Gold Medals (Linnean Society); the Copley, Darwin and Royal Medals (Royal Society); and the Order of Merit. Isn’t it perhaps time for the current darwinocentric view of the history of biology to be revised?A website has been erected called The Alfred Russell Wallace Memorial Fund. The sponsors seek to correct the darwinocentric view of the history of biology and give Wallace more recognition.1. George W. Beccaloni and Vincent S. Smith, Correspondence, “Celebrations for Darwin downplay Wallace’s role,” Nature 451, 1050 (28 February 2008) | doi:10.1038/4511050d.Yes, it is time for the darwinocentric view of the history of biology to be revised. But adding one more misguided racist apostate storyteller is a process certainly not helped by the Darwin-Wallace industry of recent decades. Reasons why Wallace doesn’t get the press Darwin gets: (1) he was from a lower social class, (2) he delved into spiritualism and held some other weird beliefs, and (3) he did not believe that natural selection could explain man’s soul, rationality and morals. For this Darwin could only barely tolerate him. Since Wallace did not go all the way to complete naturalism, he could not share the glory of the Grand Tale that allowed Dawkins to become an intellectually fool-filled atheist. Darwin was devastated when Wallace had sent him that 1858 letter outlining the same theory of natural selection that he had been working on for years. Didn’t Darwin do the right thing, though, to share the stage at the Linnean Society with Wallace by having both their papers read together? Janet Browne in her excellent biography Charles Darwin: The Power of Place (Princeton, 2002) told how it was a scheme to protect Darwin from criticism while guaranteeing him the limelight. Darwin’s X-Men friends gave Wallace just enough press to keep him from complaining about priority, but afterwards did little to share the honor with him, and worked to ensconce Charlie as the “real” hero of the Law of Natural Selection. It was “audacious skulduggery” – as Browne termed the plan Charlie & Charlie (Darwin and Lyell) cooked up. “No pair of practised fixers could, if they wished, have cooked up a better scheme for promoting Darwin’s interests” (p. 35). Read all about it in chapter 1. The Wallace Fund site contains a quote from old man Wallace in 1913: “Truth is born into this world only with pangs and tribulations, and every fresh truth is received unwillingly. To expect the world to receive a new truth, or even an old truth, without challenging it, is to look for one of those miracles which do not occur.” Great. Let’s challenge Wallace and Darwin both. Question number one: How does Truth evolve?(Visited 29 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
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Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest A report on intellectual property issued last week by the U.S. Trade Representative’s Office (USTR) outlined the Trump Administration’s continuing commitment to curtailing the damaging abuses of geographical indications (GIs) — particularly by the European Union (EU).The report highlighted ongoing threats to U.S. companies that legally use common food names both within the United States and in global trade. USTR’s annual Special 301 Report outlined extensive efforts that the administration is making in numerous countries to stem the EU’s efforts to use GIs to erect barriers to U.S. exports.The U.S. dairy industry joined the Consortium for Common Food Names (CCFN) in hailing the report for sending a strong, positive signal on how the new administration plans to tackle these types of trade and intellectual property issues to preserve jobs and safeguard global opportunities for U.S. companies.“Many countries protect legitimate GIs, including the United States,” said Jaime Castaneda, executive director for CCFN, an international alliance dedicated to preserving rights to use common food names. “When properly targeted to protect unique regional products, GIs can be a useful intellectual property tool for some producers. But the EU’s approach is far from properly targeted. Rather, it is a system designed to steal commonly used names from those who built markets for those products and monopolize use of those terms in foreign and domestic markets.”Abuse of GIs could impact a variety of sectors, from dairy, wine and meat to horticulture and rice. The U.S. dairy organizations, CCFN, and wine and grocery industry groups all filed comments to USTR earlier this year expressing concern with the growing threat to U.S. manufacturers of foods with common names. Among the specific requests to the USTR: hold trading partners accountable for their commitments, preserve market access negotiated through earlier trade agreements and prevent competitors from monopolizing widely used generic terms like feta and prosciutto.“We appreciate the many positive actions of USTR on this important issue. As trade policy strategy is developed this year, we urge the administration to build further upon the U.S. government’s past successes in pushing back against the EU’s global GI agenda,” said Tom Vilsack, president and CEO of the U.S. Dairy Export Council. “This work should continue to include both bilateral engagement with our trading partners and incorporation into any trade agreement discussions.”
A report on the alleged torture and subsequent death of a three-year-old girl child in West Bengal’s Purulia district, submitted to the West Bengal Commission for Protection of Child Rights (WBCPCR), has cited child marriage, extreme poverty, ‘provocation’ and ‘emotional immaturity’ as the key reasons behind the incident. The report was recently submitted to the WBCPCR by the District Magistrate of Purulia. The child died at the State-run SSKM Hospital on July 21 following alleged torture by one Sanatan Thakur, who inserted needles into her body. He was arrested on last Monday.Mother’s silenceIn a release issued on Sunday, the WBCPCR described the report as a ‘Social Enquiry Report of Purulia Case’. Elaborating upon the role of child marriage in the incident, the report stated that the mother of the deceased child Mangala Goswami married at the age of 15. “She [Ms. Goswami] was first married off at the age of 15 to a married person who had a living wife and a daughter and became mother at the age of 17,” states the report. It further states that Ms. Goswami “kept mum even after seeing her own child being brutally sexually tortured to death”.As for the role of “extreme poverty” in the incident, the report states that Ms. Goswami’s family was “traditionally very poor”. It also says that she was “induced to marry Sanatan Thakur, the alleged culprit of the case, for financial support.”The report also states that Thakur used Ms. Goswami as “bait for earning money from his Kirtan parties”.“The reason behind the report is to trace the broader social reasons for such a brutality on a child,” WBCPCR chairperson chairperson Ananya Chatterjee Chakraborti told The Hindu.
What is common between the diary you use each day to scribble notes in office and your feet? Too weird a comparison? Well, think again. Chances are that you will discover you care for your feet as little as you do for that diary caked with dust and on the,What is common between the diary you use each day to scribble notes in office and your feet? Too weird a comparison? Well, think again. Chances are that you will discover you care for your feet as little as you do for that diary caked with dust and on the verge of tearing apart. But unlike the diary, you cannot replace the body parts you tend to ignore most often. This new year, make a new start. Use this checklist to make sure you give each part of yourself its due.HandsThe delicate skin, fewer oil glands, constant exposure to sun and direct contact with drying elements such as harsh detergents and hot water contribute to making hands age years before the rest of you.Take special care to use a gentle scrub on your hands to remove dead skin.Moisturise hands during the day as well as before going to bed to keep them soft while maintaining their suppleness.Use SPF-containing sunscreens and lotions to protect hands from the sun.Use gloves while doing household work such as washing utensils or clothes.Elbows and kneesThe thick skin around the elbows and knees tends to be drier and darker than the rest of the body. However, it is mostly left uncared for since these parts can be easily covered with clothes.Remove dark skin from knees and elbows by exfoliating the skin regularly. Avoid use of alcohol-based products.Massage them with olive and almond oil.Lemon is extremely beneficial for your elbows and knees. Use a paste made by mixing lemon juice with salt to lighten the stubborn dark skin on these parts.Nutritional supplements of antioxidants, flaxseed oil, co-enzyme and Vitamin C will help make a difference.Feet and heelsClean, soft heels never fail to attract praise. However, cold weather and the dirt are bound to put them to severe test.Wash feet in lukewarm soapy water and exfoliate using a foot scrub to keep them clean and free from itch cracks.Apply a lanolin-rich cream or mixture of glycerin and rose water to help soften the heels.Massage the foot with either petroleum jelly which contains urea and lactic acid or a salicylic acid preparation (if the cracks are very deep) at bedtime.Use low heel, comfortable shoes that cover your feet.Always put on a loose pair of socks before going to bed.While waxing your legs, ask your therapist to wax the foot as well, to remove the dryness from the upper foot.UnderarmsDark underarms can be unsightly and embarrassing. Caused due to hyper-pigmentation, they are mostly genetic.Shaving can lead to dark underarms as the skin is sensitive and thin. As waxing removes hair from the root, it is a far better alternative to shaving.Since deodorants can lead to discoloration of the armpits, try to use perfumes or sprays when going out.Avoid bleaching this part of the body as the thin, sensitive skin turns unusually dark later on.Apply a mixture of half lemon juice and half water to your underarms. Allow the mixture to stay for 15 to 30 minutes before rinsing. Repeat this on alternate days.HipsHard and dark skin on the hips is very common among women. However, since not everyone goes around sporting bikinis, the problem remains largely ignored.Daily exfoliation with a loofah during your bath will help reduce discoloration of the hip region.Use mild scrubs for this area to avoid goose pimples.BackIt’s common knowledge that most women are plagued by acne and unusually dark skin on their backs.Use anti-bacterial soap or a salicylic acid-based cleanser to dry up the acne on your back.Moisturise your back with a hydroxyl acid that can be bought at any drug or beauty store. This will prevent the skin from drying up in any weather.Protect the skin from sunlight and cleanse it with gentle cleansing milk every night before going to bed.Neck skinThe skin on the neck is much more delicate, and thus requires more care as compared to the rest of your body.Regularly peel the dead skin on your neck with face cosmetics once a week, since they are gentler.To prevent ageing and moisture loss, eat food containing vitamin F, such as corn, sunflower oil, linseed oil, and nuts.With inputs from: Dr Jamuna Pai, Cosmetic Physician, Blush Clinics; Anuradha CH, Director, Anoo’s Salon; Anjali Negi, Marketing Manager, JAFRA Cosmetics; and Vivek Sahni, MD, Kama Ayurveda.advertisement