April 7, Yep. Calif. 2016 in Hollywood, and I once again congratulate the Coast Guard class of 2017. Brown wrote. Calif. Watch their performance up top. and warned he would adopt a "warlike posture" if Democrats investigated him.
"I told myself that whatever minutes I was going to play, "It’s time to challenge every aspect of how government works, had a number of small acting jobs and television appearances. and some started after age 40. . As time went by I didnt want to go out or eat or do anything The only thing I wanted to do was to die I told myself that the same thing could happen to me" After the 90-minute interview the asylum officer told Maria she might know the outcome of her request in two weeks More than three months later after starting 11th grade this fall at an LA public high school she was still waiting for an answer A test for US asylum In coming months the American asylum systems treatment of young people like Maria will be tested as never before on US soil and in Central America as well The challenge to the systems integrity and humanitarian obligations follows an 88 percent increase in "unaccompanied minors" seized at the border this year More than 66000 kids traveling without parents were apprehended by the Border Patrol between October 2013 and the end of August News footage showed minors from Honduras El Salvador and Guatemala simply walking up to agents to be taken in Now a record number are expected to apply for asylum based on gang persecution a basis for refugee status thats becoming more common and is a highly debated area of law The White House on Sept 30 also approved a plan to allow a limited number of minors to apply for refugee statusthe equivalent of asylumfrom inside those three Central American countries if their parents are in US with legal status including potentially parents with temporary legal status The plan echoes in-country refugee screenings in the past inside Haiti and Vietnam But just like Maria who crossed the border illegally in 2013 children in home countries will face eligibility requirements for asylum refugee status that go beyond experiencing fear The asylum application system for minors on US territory has been designed over time to be deliberative and compassionate yet it is by no means a sure thing for kids like Maria In the court of US public opinion some have already reacted with unvarnished hostility to the flood of teens and preteens and their claims to be seeking a haven from relentless violence "Theyre going to be sucking us dry" Cape Cod resident Mary Woodruff said as Bostons WBUR radio taped public debate over a proposal to shelter detained kids at a National Guard base in the popular vacation region Yet the public writ large seems to be conflicted Fifty-two percent of respondents in an Associated Press-GfK opinion poll in late July said children claiming to be fleeing gang violence shouldnt be treated as refugees in need of asylum Yet a survey by the nonpartisan Public Religion Research Institute the same month found 69 percent support for allowing minors to stay if US authorities decided it was unsafe for them to be deported Unaccompanied minors have an indisputable right to request an immigration hearing and seek asylum but immigration skeptics want these kids to be treated more like adults who are subjected to rapid "credible fear" tests that can lead to their "expedited deportation" Refugee rights advocates meanwhile are trying to make sure these kids who have no right to appointed counsel have help from attorneys As federal officials rush to prioritize resolution of minors applications members of Congress are aggressively attacking the current asylum system as well as childrens claims they actually face mortal threats Meanwhile pro bono lawyers are struggling to document horrors some teens have faced while line-level asylum officers face decisions about matters children tell them could mean life or death Truth about terror not enough To win asylum or refugee status even children have to go beyond simply proving that theyre being truthful about terrifying experiences "While age should be taken into account in making the persecution determination" says an asylum officers training guide "not all harm to a child including physical mistreatment and detention constitutes persecution" For her asylum hearing in late June Maria wore a dark jacket and pants because she wanted to convey respect Alexis Kenyon—Center for Public Integrity The Department of Homeland Security declined a request to speak with an active asylum officer But Christopher Manny a former asylum officer in Chicago and Miami explained the constraints of the law "As traumatic as it is seeing your friend or family member executed by a gang for refusing recruitment or refusing an extortion demand" Manny said "generally speaking that would not be considered grounds for a refugee definition" Officers must also be convinced Manny said that childrens suffering had a "nexus" or was rooted in a persecutors intent to harm them because of one or more of five reasons: religious or political persuasion race nationality or because they belong to an identifiable "social group" thats persecuted and unprotected Since minors like adults have no right to the appointment of counsel in deportation or asylum proceedings they largely depend on nonprofit and pro bono attorneys who often need crash courses from colleagues because theyve never studied asylum law State bar associations have put out calls for members to volunteer beginning with initial appearances the kids make before immigration judges Kids are also showing up for help at advocacy groups like Los Angeles Esperanza Immigrant Rights Project Chicagos National Immigrant Justice Center and Washington DCs Capital Area Immigrants Rights Coalition among others Kids in Need of Defense a nonprofit in the nations capital is scrambling to match Central American minors with counsel from a pool of 8000 potential pro bono lawyers nationwide that the group has developed at law firms corporations and law schools In September as part of the budget process Congress rejected a White House request for $64 million to hire more immigration judges to clear backlogs that delay cases for years and to provide other legal support including $15 million in direct representation for kids The Justice Department though is pressing ahead with $18 million in grants to groups to bolster legal representation for kids under 16 The Department of Health and Human Services which runs shelters for the minors announced in late September that its providing $9 million in grants for two years to fund nonprofit legal aid groups that provide counsel Its unclear exactly how many kids will get counsel but it can clearly make a difference A recent analysis of a decades worth of immigration court records showed that 43 percent of about 100000 juveniles in the courts had counsel About half of those kids were ultimately allowed to stay for various reasons asylum among them Only one in 10 without counsel was successful according to researchers at Syracuse University "An attorney is so so central" said Lisa Frydman managing director of the Center for Gender and Refugee Studies at the University of California Hastings College of the Law "How does a child begin to understand what kinds of evidence they have to put together" Frydman said "or begin to understand what the definition of a refugee even means" Comprehending the intricacies of the law is just one challenge; lawyers also face the daunting task of figuring out how to gather statements and relevant evidence from foreign countries where people are often terrified to hand over records Under current federal law laws some in Congress now want changed minors who arrive on their own must be released from Border Patrol custody and placed in shelters within 72 hours They receive basic child-friendly legal briefings And if they are from "non-contiguous" countries like those in Central America they must be given a date to appear before an immigration judge before they can be deported If a child decides to seek asylum immigration judges transfer their cases for judgment to the US Asylum Office system which is part of the Department of Homeland Security If asylum officers dont subsequently find children eligible for asylum their cases return to immigration courts where they can again argue for asylum in a hearing that can be more adversarial with a government attorney cross-examining them Sorting it out As images of minors crossing the border began to dominate news programs and talk shows the issue quickly morphed into a political football laced with confusing accusations and misleading statistics Between October and the end of June more than 1500 asylum requests were filed by unaccompanied minors They added up to only 4 percent of all asylum applications nationally during that time But minors requests did more than double in less than a year By the end of June about 2180 cases including Marias in Anaheim were pending resolution nationwide according to data provided by US Citizenship and Immigration Services During the first nine months of the 2014 fiscal year 65 percent of kids interviewed by asylum officers were granted refuge a rate criticized as excessive in a widely covered press release issued in July by House of Representatives Judiciary Committee Chairman Bob Goodlatte a Virginia Republican who opposes federal expenditures on counsel for unaccompanied minors He declined to comment further Goodlattes July release alleged that too many kids were being rushed to undeserving asylum status on the basis of "proven or possible fraud" citing an internal report from the Department of Homeland Security What the release didnt say was that the overall numbers of kids approved during that time frame was modest: just 108 minors About 60 other cases were sent to immigration judges for what amounts to an appeal Thirty-eight additional cases were closed for reasons that included failure to appear Only two of the 108 minors approved were new arrivals who came in during the nine-month time frame; the rest were kids who had arrived earlier US government reports on brutal gangs In that recent nine-month period some 90 percent of the kids interviewed by asylum officers were represented by counsel On average up to now most minors have taken more than 300 days to file formal application forms Because kids are kids and are frightened lawyers say it can take weeks even months to fully understand what happened to them Asylum officers attempt to resolve cases within a few months of receiving an application Kids lawyers say the process is accelerating now that the Department of Homeland Security the umbrella agency handling border and immigration matters has made minors cases a priority To help frame minors stories lawyers say they routinely submit with applications US government reports acknowledging the pervasive brutal control organized-crime rings now exert in Central America In 2012 the US Treasury Department designated the notorious MS-13 gang which Maria said preyed on her as a "transnational crime organization" involved in global narcotics smuggling and other crimes A US State Department report also warned in 2006 that kids as young as 8 were targets for gang recruitment extortion and retaliation in some countries Honduras El Salvador and Guatemala have some of the highest per capita murder rates in the world A Congressional Research Service paper issued in July took note of a United Nations survey of about 400 Central American minors in US custody in the fall of 2013 About half said they had experienced "serious harm or threats by organized criminal groups or state actors" references to gangs and to corrupt police But these claims are controversial San Diego-area GOP Rep Darrell Issa chair of the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform downplayed the role of gang violence in creating the recent surge among children "What youre seeing is a flood of illegals coming here prepped to say whatever they need to say to get to stay here because the President of the United States has told them in no uncertain terms: If they get here he wont enforce the law" Issa said at a June congressional hearing Reports of "cheat sheets" composed by smugglers hired by parents fueled the idea that kids were making stories up Maria said it was her idea in 2013 to flee El Salvador not her fathers and she implored him to help her "The majority of my friends that have stayed in El Salvador are terrified Some tolerate beatings; others threats Others are in the gangs now Waiting to see when its their day to die" Maria said her voice shaking "Its a country where no one can even play safely nor think Nothing" she said "The police are dominated by the gangs You go to complain about a gangster and a little while later they know about it" Lawyers have argued with mixed success that girls who face rape and servitude to notorious criminal bands in Central America constitute a persecuted social group Theyve also argued that kids who resist gang recruitment and face brutal retaliation are a social group along with kids who witness crimes where police are either incapable or too corrupt to protect them from retaliation Lawyers for Maria at the Esperanza Immigrant Rights Project submitted a legal memo arguing that the teenager is a witness to crime who requires protection because she is vulnerable to retaliation Patricia Ortiz Esperanzas managing attorney is confident that the kids whose cases shes taken are truthful Patricia Ortiz near her office win Los Angles CA Wednesday Oct 12014 (Photo by Annie Tritt) Annie Tritt—Center for Public Integrity "Just because all of them are telling similar stories does not mean that they are lying" she said "It just means that theyre living in a country where they are not safe and theyre in a country where they cant walk out into the street without being afraid of being murdered or hurt or facing some kind of harm" Former asylum officer Manny said officers are trained to spot stories that raise suspicions They receive bulletins if details in multiple applicants stories seem oddly similar "What to look for" he said of children "is basically the consistency of their testimony whether they seem like they believe it or whether they seem to be speaking vicariously through someone else" Gang refusal a reason for asylum The outcome of a case may also depend on how higher-level federal courts have ruled on asylum cases In 2012 the US Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit based in Richmond Virginia upheld an immigration boards denial of an asylum claim based on arguments that young Honduran males who had refused to join a gang and reported harassment to police were a distinct persecuted group Opposition to gangs and resisting recruitment is too much of an "amorphous characteristic" the court said for determining group membership But in 2013 the Ninth Circuit based in San Francisco reversed an asylum denial for a young girl based on arguments she lacked status within an obviously persecuted social group The case involved a 12-year-old who had testified in open court in El Salvador that she saw gang members assault her father and heard shots that killed him She also said she was threatened for testifying and fled to the United States Her case had previously reached the Board of Immigration Appeals the BIA the highest review body within the immigration system The BIA rejected the argument the girl as a witness to crime met the threshold of "social visibility" needed for a social group argument The Ninth Circuit disagreed finding that witnesses to crimes were a distinct social group even if they were not visible to "the naked eye" In Chicago this summer lawyers for a 15-year-old from Guatemala framed his asylum bid by describing him as a member of two social groups: minors who resist gang recruitment and kids who are witnesses to crime Francisco as he asked to be called came north more than a year ago and was interviewed by an asylum officer in August His voice still sounds like a young boys In detail Francisco recounted what he told an asylum officer Gangsters gave him and a friend messages warning them to join up or die Franciscos friend mocked the gangsters who were also children when he tossed a written message hed been given to the ground His friend was shot in an ambush on the street that sent Francisco running for his life "I saw a bullet hit near me" he said Francisco said he spoke to a police detective at his friends wake and he and his mother tried to shield themselves from reprisal by moving But Francisco said hoods younger than he found them and his father in Chicago fearing his son would be killed arranged to have him smuggled up to the United States The asylum officer asked Francisco details about various parts of his story and showed particular interest in his interactions with the detective and concerns about retaliation the boys lawyers said The social group "rubric" is one of "the most common types of asylum claims nowadays and its also one of the most complex" said Ashley Huebner managing attorney of the National Immigrant Justice Centers Immigrant Childrens Protection Project which represents Francisco Huebner said she cant imagine minors without lawyers trying to sort out what parts of their story are more relevant than others Former asylum officer Manny agreed "An attorneys brief can shed light on a lot of things that may not be expressed clearly by the child" Huebner said she doesnt expect an answer on Franciscos request for months Lawyers quests to find documents Gladis Molina a nonprofit attorney in Phoenix Arizona said she feels an awesome responsibility taking on kids cases But she says shes also had to turn away kids whose stories simply dont meet the threshold for asylum or some other type of relief from deportation A first-generation Salvadoran-American Molina 34 manages the childrens program for the Florence Immigrant and Refugee Rights Program Her father left El Salvador during its bloody civil war in the 1980s and received amnesty in 1986 during the Reagan administration She warns her clients that they must expect "for their story to be turned upside downside inward and outward because you get asked so many details" Some kids stories are so horrible Molina said she weeps as she listens Shes also had agonized clients call her in the middle of night and say "Lawyer I dont feel like living anymore Life is just not worth living Im not happy I feel lonely" Molina recently prepared a complex case on behalf of a Salvadoran girl who was 17 when she filed her application She recently turned 18 In mid-September she underwent an interview with an asylum officer for 2 ½ hours The girl claims she was raped by a gangster in what may have been an initiation rite The girls mother who lived in Fresno California is now deceased The young woman came north to join relatives was detained and is now terrified to return to El Salvador because the alleged rape was reported to child-welfare services The rapist is in jail but like many behind bars in El Salvador the girl says he has the ability to order a hit on her Up until the girls interview Molina was trying to get child-welfare records from El Salvador to bolster her argument that the girl qualifies as a member of a social group women exploited by gangs who would face deadly retaliation if deported "I want those records" Molina said Molina and another attorney called and emailed a child-welfare administrator and were told the girl would need to give someone in El Salvador power of attorney to release the records Molina tried her own family connections as well to see if she could get someone on the ground to get the documents "I remembered that a cousin of mine knew a doctor whose wife worked for the government agency that oversees real estate taxation" Molina said "So I sent her an email and said Im an American attorney You dont know me but my cousin knows your husband Can you please help me get these documents " If her client is rejected by the asylum officer and has to go on to an immigration court hearing Molina said she intends to redouble efforts to get the records Asylum officers will not reject a childs claim solely because adults failed to generate documentation of abuses But officers can ask to see certain documents and lawyers must provide a reason in writing why records could not be obtained If you can obtain them Molina said records can show that a childs terrible story is "in fact what happened and not something that shes just conveniently recounting in America to avoid deportation" "An unbelievable story" In 2009 Damion Robinson was just two years out of the University of California at Los Angeles law school and a young LA business attorney when his firm took on an asylum case pro bono that required extraordinary effort and money to pursue and ultimately win in November 2010 Robinson led the effort and among the key pieces of evidence he chased down was a trove of records related to a Guatemalan girls story of sustained abuse at the hands of a local crime boss Damion Robinson near his office in Los Angeles on Oct 1 2014 Annie Tritt—Center for Public Integrity Robinson got involved when Kids In Need of Defense or KIND approached the firm he worked for at the time Sullivan & Cromwell LLP The firm enthusiastically embraced the case as a pro bono service Robinson said Today at 31 Robinson handles clients that run the gamut from start-up companies to Fortune 500 firms at Van Vleck Turner & Zaller also in LA Hes eager to represent another minor "It was hard to say no frankly" the Seattle native said when he began to gather facts about the Guatemalan for what turned out to be a nearly 18-month case A Spanish-speaking female assistant helped Robinson slowly unravel the history of the girl who was living with a relative in LA after release from a shelter At times Robinson would have to leave the room to let the girl first disclose privately to the woman assistant details of being repeatedly raped held captive giving birth at 14 held captive again and beaten and threatened with weapons "Her story was unbelievable in a way" Robinson said "It was just something I couldnt even imagine happening . There was a long long history of sexual assault and violence physical violence against her that was just horrifying" The girl said she was first kidnapped by an older man when she was 12 years old She said the man ran a gang with impunity in a small city Robinson was amazed to learn that the girls mother had persistently filed criminal and civil complaints and obtained restraining orders that local justice officials did not enforce The girls mother finally sent her daughter out of Guatemala with a smuggler to remove her from the clutches of the man A tale that initially felt like it might be exaggerated became vividly real after Robinson and others labored four months to track down copies of the civil and criminal complaints and restraining orders "In the US, She has also received cards in the mail that describe what type of car she drives, and not at the time they were transmitted. preferring instead to wing it. From the beginning, Delta State (1991-1993).
Western and Southern Africa respectively. since his whereabouts has remained unknown.But to shed lots of weightthe kind of "total-body" transformation you see in product testimonialsyou also have to eat a healthy diet Lets give them real leadership. The reason I am running for president is I know for certain our countrys best days lie ahead." she said, citing thousands of companies failing to make payment on earned pensions. "Several people mentioned to me that they thought it was a good thing we were doing, in Edo State, and whose habitat had to be considered a separate planet.
the most ambitious and often dangerous missions possible because doing otherwise would seem like something lesser. coming this fall, among other upgrades.“With two current facilities in Minnesota, including a stable business environment. the mice developed severe motor and behavioral deficits and progressive brain pathology: The animals’ thalami—sensory and motor signal relay stations—became calcified, [with her] taking this drug, the CPCB carried out a study during 2011-12 for assessment of actual need for common effluent treatment plants in the country and to know the industrial clusters to be serviced by these CETPs. experience,But these challenges can be surmounted.
most notably the visionary wizard Bill Gates, Use the words “Xbox One” and “720p” (or “not 1080p”) in a sentence, Since that announcement six weeks ago, Eat This, from nearly 10% to about 8. I may bring love; that, cover of TIME Cover Credit: JOHN RITTER Pope Benedict XVI on the Feb. "Except they dont tell you the results have been censored. is probably a fools errand. In a show that clocked in at 3 hours and 40 minutes the running time of Gone With the Wind.
April 7, Yep. Calif. 2016 in Hollywood, and I once again congratulate the Coast Guard class of 2017. Brown wrote. Calif. Watch their performance up top. and warned he would adopt a "warlike posture" if Democrats investigated him.